According to the German scientists, the colza can be in any crop rotation, even the beet. However, in crop rotations having rummaged in cultivation between and beet has to make not less than three years, and it is best of all — 4 —
The maximum need of a winter colza for nutrients is noted from the beginning of vegetation in the spring and before the end of blossoming. It is necessary to remember that many nutrients spend a plant in the period of low temperatures, in especially early spring. This results from the fact that the colza belongs to cultures which early finish winter rest.
After early potatoes, other propashny cultures and annual herbs plowing is carried out on depth of an arable layer. Use plows of PGP-5-40 or PGP-7-4 They well proved under our conditions. After long-term herbs layer is disked previously in two traces, then plowed. In all cases the plowed land is conducted in the unit with adaptations for a prikatyvaniye of the soil, crushing of blocks and alignment of a surface.
On sites with a large number of the pozhnivny remains (a dense high eddish and herbs, but not littered with a wheat grass and when there is not enough time prior to sowing, start up harrows. Disks cut the remains of straw and an eddish, then plow.
The colza is exacting and to soil fertilizer. It can only yield a big crop of seeds at sufficient an basic elements of food. It speaks them from their nose from the soil during vegetation and an of seeds. To receive one centner of grain of a colza, it is required to bring 3,9 kilograms of nitrogen, 1,8 phosphorus, 1,1 potassium and 0,6 kilograms of magnesium in the soil. Together with costs of nutrients of formation of straw 4,7 kilograms of nitrogen, 2,2 phosphorus, 4,4 potassium and 0,85 kilograms of magnesium are taken out from the soil.
At intensive technologies of cultivation of cultures the importance is attached to lime application of sour soils. It was confirmed by practice. On sour winter grain, the corn, beet, other cultures badly grow. The winter colza is especially exacting to lime application of the soil. Optimum acidity on sites, under a colza, has to be not lower than 6,3 — 6, Therefore an of the sour cespitose and podsolic soils especially poor in organic substances, one of the major increasing efficiency of the introduced and mineral fertilizers. As limy materials dust, a belite flour, etc. are used a dolomitic flour,.
The need of a colza for other nutrients is great. On formation of each 10 centners of seeds the colza consumes 15 — 20 kilograms of sulfur. The most intensive sulfurs begins in a phase of a steblevaniye and comes to an end approximately in a week before falling off of the last flowers. The I this period a colza every day takes out from the soil 0,5 — 1 kilograms of sulfur per hectare of crops. Consumption of sulfur comes to an end with the first pods.
Seeds of a winter colza contain 47 — 49 percent of crude fat. In comparison with other crops he has advantages as promotes increase of efficiency of the cultures following it in a crop rotation though demands big costs of fertilizers, a of plants. Experience of farms confirms that the colza with high concentration of the grain assists increase in an of grain by 4 — 5 centners from hectare of crops in crop rotations.
The intensive technology assumes an individual approach to cultivation of each crop — preparation of the soil, creation of a bed for seeds of future plant, etc. If for a clover the surface treatment of the soil is acceptable, the colza needs deep plowing and cultivation. It is caused by biological feature of a plant. The winter colza forms a rhizome, deeply to the soil which accumulates nutrients. It significantly influences winter hardiness of a plant, its ability to regeneration, and also resistance to drowning.
But happens and so: the chosen predecessor is located in the lowland, and incessant rains passed or began here, the earth became limp. In this case plowing should not be made. High humidity of a bed has an adverse effect in an early phase of development of a winter colza. It is noticed that after the seeds of a winter colza sowed to the damp, cold soil their growth is slowed down, plants in the fall faded, have obviously antotsianovy coloring.